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Low aspirations could be challenged in a society where, theoretically, success is open to all. Targeted early childhood interventions to address child poverty in the USA and the UK A very strongly held assumption in the USA is that state intervention for early childhood programmes is unnecessary and unaffordable, and too costly for the public purse OECD The preferred approach is to target specialized services to poor young children. There are two studies in particular that are cited over and over again, the Perry High Scope and the Abecedarian. These studies, which began in the s and s were conducted as longitudinal randomized, controlled trials.

This methodology is borrowed from medicine and is regarded as scientifically robust, although the samples are small. It is worth paying some attention to these studies, since so very many claims are based on them. The Abecedarian project which took place in North Carolina was a trial for infants. Eligible mothers had IQs of about 85, and 55 per cent were on welfare benefits. The overwhelming majority of the participants, 98 per cent, were black. Half of the sample was randomly assigned to the intervention group and the other half to the control group.

The intervention group had three years of intensive high quality full-time care and education before starting school; and of this group half received after-school care from kindergarten through to the age of 8 i. At the age of 21, of the participants were followed up.

Sources of inequality in South African early child development services

The major domains measured at the age of 21 included academic skills and educational attainment, employment and social adjustment which included instances of substance abuse and law breaking. Generally the group who had received intervention had better scores than the control group, with girls performing slightly better than boys. However, there was no reduction in law breaking— The mothers of the children who had the intervention had also benefited slightly from the availability of childcare, and were more likely to be employed.

As the authors point out, there were layers of confounding effects—the community where the research was carried out, the standards of local schools and the levels of racism in the community may have all influenced the outcomes Campbell et al. The authors concluded that good quality full-time care in the early years did make a long-term difference, although the results should be carefully interpreted.

The team from the Abecedarian have issued many papers in peer refereed journals, detailing the different aspects of the study, and their follow up of the participants over time. Generally these findings have proved durable. There has been little or no criticism of their scientific status or their claims. The Perry High Scope project is much more problematic. The claims for the long-term effects of the project border on the fantastic: those who have been through one or two years of the very part-time High Scope nursery project at the age of 3 or 4 years at one time or another are less likely to have committed crimes, more likely to be house owners, or more likely to own two cars.

High Scope was an early learning programme designed originally within the school system in Ypsilanti.

The programme seemed to be very successful, and those involved with it, most notably David Weikart, set up their own charitable foundation to promote the programme, to package and sell it. All the key publications describing the project have been issued by the Foundation itself, as part of its promotional activities. However, there have also been other publications in reputable journals. There are three separate projects described in the publications of High Scope.

Nikis Challenge

The first, the Perry High Scope project, randomly allocated children, selected on the basis of low IQ 85 to two different groups, an intervention group and a control group. Most of these children were from poor black families. The children entered the study at the age of 3 or 4, with a new group each year from to The first group had two years of High Scope, subsequent groups only one year. Over time, subjects were followed up Schweinhart et al. The second project was the Ypsilanti Preschool Curriculum Demonstration project, again in small numbers or waves through , and The children were allocated to one of three groups, a High Scope group, a directed curriculum group, or a control group.

It is unclear whether all the children have been randomly assigned to their groups. The numbers given for children participating in this project appear to vary; and there seems to be some overlap of groups with the previous study, i. The most commonly cited number of participants for this study is These children were also followed up long term Schweinhart et al. These children were followed up for seven years but no further details of this study have become available. Attempts have been made to quantify the impact of the first two projects in terms of cost-benefits.

The cost-benefits refer mainly to the first project, but frequently reviewers have confused or conflated them. These figures amount to a cost-savings ratio of seven dollars saved to every dollar spent on the programme. The thorough Abecedarian project showed no benefits from reduced crime figures. No other project has indicated such positive results as the Perry High Scope project. Even the Perry High Scope has had more limited impact than its supporters appear to be claiming, which has led to charges of over-selling the results.

Reviews of the evidence suggest that impact is linked with the type and quality of the provision. For example, even in the Perry High Scope Preschool Project, which is known for its remarkably positive outcomes, nearly one third of the program children were later arrested, and one third dropped out of high school…realistic expectations are in order.

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The Future of Children As we shall see in the following chapters, the evidence, especially from the Perry High Scope study, is recycled over and over again. The conflation of low-income with low IQ and welfare referrals, and the targeting of ethnic minority groups, raises questions about the generalizability and relevance of the results. Yet despite their limited application and their limited success, these studies crop up in most of the justificatory early childhood literature that is used in the South.

Assumptions about the role of targeted early childhood interventions in the USA in combating child poverty are so widespread that they have an almost biblical status in the early childhood community. But there is some limited criticism of targeting even within the USA. Critics suggest that the aims of targeted early childhood interventions—to break the back of poverty—are in general hugely optimistic. The gains, if any, are marginal, refer only to high-quality programmes, and overlook, or divert attention from, the wider socio-economic contexts of inequality and lack of social mobility Bickel and Spatig Drawing on the same recycled evidence from the USA, the Sure Start programme in England is another much trumpeted targeted approach to addressing child poverty.

Launched in , it aimed to provide a range of community-based services for children aged 0—3. It is targeted at 20 per cent of the poorest districts in England. Sure Start is currently being evaluated in three ways: for its implementation the kind of programmes it has been developing ; for its outcomes the effect on young children of having attended the programmes ; and for its cost-effectiveness its cost compared with alternative forms of provision and child support.

On each of these evaluations, the results so far are not encouraging. These and other recent evidence about the relationship between childcare and poverty also suggest that redistribution may be a more effective strategy in addressing poverty Toroyan et al. Efforts to intervene in the lives of young children from multi-problem families in the USA is a smoke screen to disguise unpalatable realities: [S]o many people believe in infant determinism [because] it ignores the power of social class membership.

To acknowledge the power of class is to question this ethical canon.

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Kagan This discussion should certainly not be read as an argument against providing early years education and care per se. It is worth stressing that the OECD, sometimes called the club of developed nations, does not share these views about early intervention as a way to combat poverty. In its ongoing review of early education and care Starting Strong the OECD states, very broadly, that early childhood services are a necessary public good—like education or health services.

The debate is not about such justifications for provision, which are taken as read for a developed society, but about implementation.

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Quality services that meet conditions of equitable access and ensure an entitlement for vulnerable children are invariably publicly funded although parents may make some contribution. Overall, within OECD countries, 82 per cent of provision is publicly funded. In the absence of any kind of state intervention or funding, it is left up to individual providers to provide education and care on an ad hoc basis, and under these conditions, the quality of provision is highly variable and access is inequitable.

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My aim here has been to highlight the difficulties of using targeted early years provision as a strategy for poverty reduction. Targeting takes for granted that the state only has a minimalist role to play in the provision of early years services. As a strategy for poverty reduction it misleads in that it is too accepting of inequality and assumes the inevitability of poverty.

It confirms the segregation and stigmatization of those that receive it. The evidence is highly specific to certain groups and cannot easily be transposed from one society to another. As I attempt to show below, this happens all too often. Measuring poverty and inequality in the South Poverty in the South is more life-threatening.

Without any security cushion—no benefits or pensions, no services, and often no reliable, regular source of income—households are inter-dependent and vulnerable. These include the number of people living on an income of less than a dollar a day; infant mortality; child mortality; maternal mortality; life expectancy; and access to education. These statistics are collected and compared across countries, but in many countries the statistics are simply notional.

Health and education data are notoriously weak in many poor countries. The one dollar a day measure does not take account of local economies; in some cities it may buy little or nothing; in other places it will buy a good meal or second-hand clothes. The bulk of economic activity of most poor countries occurs mainly in the informal sector.

Petty trading, marketing, crafts, subsistence farming, itinerant or casual labour, pastoralists moving with their animals; all this means that the standard measures of economic activity used in the North are unworkable. It is impossible to calculate incomes, or predict tax revenues with accuracy. As the case studies in subsequent chapters show, these rankings cover very different circumstances and patterns of survival.